What is Management? Competency, Goals, Functions, Skills

Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through competency, goals, functions, skills. And the responsibility of managers is to achieve high performance by using organizational resources.

1. Competency

Managers of all types of organizations who are learning to apply management competencies in oversight, results, relationships, and design.

  • Oversight: Instead of being a controller effective manager is an enabler who helps people do and be their best. Managers learn to design the rules of the game without specifying the actions of the players, managers shape the cultures systems and conditions and then give people the freedom to move the organization in the direction. They help people get what they need, remove obstacles, provide learning opportunities and offer feedback coaching and career guidance.
  • Results: When it comes to accomplishing tasks managers have to move from supervising individuals to leading teams instead of management by keeping tabs, they employ an empowering leadership style.
  • Relationships: Based on authentic conversation and collaboration is essential for successful outcomes, managers need to enhance communication and partnership.
  • Design: The best managers focus on designing an environment that is flexible enough, they design the organization and culture to anticipate threats and opportunities from the environment challenge, and promote creative learning adaptation and innovation.

2. Goals

The definition of management encompasses the idea of attaining organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner, an organization is a social entity that's goal-directed and deliberately structured. Organizations pervade in our society and managers are responsible for seeing that the resources are used wisely to obtain organizational goals.

  • Effectiveness: Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal, effectiveness means providing a product or service that customers value.
  • Efficiency: Organizational efficiency refers to the number of resources used to achieve an organizational goal it's based on the amount of raw material, money and that are necessary for producing a given volume of output. Efficiency can be defined as the number of resources used to produce a product or service.

3. Functions

There are four basic functions of management planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

  • Planning is about identifying goals for future organizational performance in deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them. Managerial planning defines where the organization wants to be in the future and how to get there.
  • Organizing typically follows planing and reflects how the organization tries to accomplish the plan. Organizing involves assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority and allocating resources across the organization.
  • Leading is the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. Leading means creating a shared culture and values communicating goals to people throughout the organization and infusing. Employees with the desire to perform at a high level, have to be a top manager of a big organization to be an exceptional leader many managers, working quietly in both large and small organizations around the world, provide strong leadership within departments teams, nonprofit organizations, and small businesses.
  • Controlling means monitoring employees activities determine whether the organization is moving towards its goals, and making corrections as necessary. One trend in recent years is for organizations to place less emphasis on top-down control and more emphasis on training employees to monitor and correct themselves. However, the ultimate responsibility for control still rests with managers.

4. Skills

Although some management theorists propose a long list of skills, the necessary skills for managing an organization can be placed in three broad categories: Technical, human, and conceptual. The application of these three skills changes dramatically when a person is promoted to management. Technical, human, and conceptual although the degree that each skill is required at different levels of an organization. All managers must possess some skill in each of these important areas to perform effectively.

  • Technical skills: Many managers get promoted to their first job because they've demonstrated an understanding and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks which are referred to as technical skills.

Technical skills include mastery of methods techniques and equipment involved in specific functions such as engineering manufacturing or finance, technical skills also include specialized knowledge analytical ability and the competent use of tools and techniques to solve problems in a specific discipline

Technical skills are particularly important at lower levels of the organization. However, these skills become less important as human and conceptual skills as managers move up the hierarchy top managers, with strong technical skills sometimes have to learn to step back so that others can do their jobs effectively.

  • Human skills refer to a manager's ability to work with and through other people and work effectively as part of a group, these human skills are demonstrated in the way that a manager relates to other people including the ability to motivate facilitate coordinate lead communicate and resolve conflicts.

Human skills are increasingly important for managers at all levels and types of organizations, human skills were significantly more important than technical skill for predicting manager effectiveness. Human skills are essential for frontline managers who work with employees directly on a daily basis. The motivational skill of the frontline manager is the single most important factor in whether people feel engaged with their work and committed to an organization.

  • Conceptual skills refer to the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole in the relationship amongst parts. Conceptual skills involve knowing where one's team fits into the total organization and how the organization fits into the industry. The community and the broader business and social environment, it means the ability to think strategically to take a broad long-term view and to identify evaluate and solve complex problems.

Conceptual skills are needed by all managers but especially by managers at the top many of the responsibilities of top managers such as decision making resource allocation and innovation.

Good management skills are not automatic, numerous highly publicized examples have shown what happens when managers fail to apply their skills effectively to meet the demands of uncertain rapidly changing worlds around them. Managers have complex jobs that require a range of abilities and skills.


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